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Heavenly Bodies: Fashion and the Catholic Imagination Part 2

heavenly bodies part 2

Currently on display at the Met Museum on Fifth and the Cloisters in the fashion exhibition Heavenly Bodies: Fashion and the Catholic Imagination. Read part one here, the premise of this exhibition is fashions relationship with the Catholic religion and religions in general. Many of the designers showcased grew up in the Catholic church or still practice a belief. Items like Papal robes and other catholic dress were on loan to the museum. While the designer pieces were set among artifacts found in Medieval time periods or set in the Cloisters, a regal feeling building. To get a total understanding of how the exhibition flows, its best to visit both locations. Can’t make it? Keep reading, and don’t forget to read part one. Click images to enlarge.

 

Items From the Vatican.

These items were not allowed to be photographed. Only the artifact in the entrance was allowed to be photographed. Inside this portion of the exhibition were papal dress worn by Vatican Popes including crosses made of precious stones and gold, crowns, zucchetto skullcaps and various robes among other items.

Heavenly bodies

Chasuble Designed by Henri Matisse-1950

 

 

Treasures For Heaven I

Medieval churches held many treasures within them and like those found in the Cloisters, they inspired designers. Pieces that inspired them include alter frontals, stained glass, rosaries and more. This section included a piece by Alexander McQueen, which consisted of a S/S 1999 Ensemble made of plywood, leather, wood and lace. This piece was apart of the ‘No. 13″ collection where he explored the tension between man and machine. Pictures were not allowed.

 

Earthly Hierarchy

In this portion of the exhibition religious dress and color schemes are examined. It showcases the different religious dress within one religion, usually expressing a hierarchy and religious differences in dress between different religions. Focusing mainly on the Roman Catholic church where colors black, violet, white and scarlet are heavily used. They also highlight hue changes for specific occasions within Catholic proceedings.

 

 

The Habit

This religious dress worn by females usually consists of a tunic, a scapular or apron, a veil and a sash at the waist.

 

 

 

The Dominican Habit

Perhaps the most widely recognized Habit thanks to Hollywood is the Dominican Habit. Its black and white contrast has a  stronger visual appeal for designers, as opposed to the simple brown and plain white of other habits.

heavenly bodies part 2

Thom Browne A/W 2011-12

 

The Soutane

The  everyday dress of the secular clergy is the Soutane. Created in the late 12th century this garment usually has a white clerical collar, a floor length, long sleeves and 33 buttons. Daily dress is normally a black soutane with a sash and skullcap.

 

 

 

Ecclesiastical Fashion Show

The liturgical processions of the Roman Catholic Church have similarities to a fashion show. Both follow an orderly arrangement, involve active and passive participants and involve music. The following designs were put in a fashion show like order and were placed near the rolling film “Roma” by Federico Fellini in which there is an “ecclesiastical fashion show” scene.

 

 

 

 

Celestial Hierarchy I

Inspired by saints, angels and the hierarchy of the Roman Catholic Church. Angels, which usually are depicted as guides and messengers for humans, inspired many fashion designers.

 

 

The Dressed Madonna

Many designers created and continue to create garments for Madonna and Child sculptures. Featured here are vestments created by Ricardo Tisci and Yves Saint Laurent.

 

 

 

Celestial Hierarchy II

The designers showcased here were inspired by early Italian Renaissance paintings that were based on religious themes. Particularly inspiring were saints, angels, The Virgin and the work of painter Fra Angelico, who specified in frescos following this theme.

 

 

Mosaics I

Inspired by Byzantine art that showcases figures such as Christ, The Virgin Mary and more. Dolce and Gabbana were inspired by fresco paintings found in the Moreale Cathedral in Sicily.

 

 

Mosaics II 

The Gianni Versace dresses showcased here were inspired by mosaics of Ravenna’s Byzantine monuments. The mesh like material and cross take inspiration from elements Gianni saw in the Met when he visited “The Glory of Byzantium” exhibit in 1997.

 

 

Heavenly Bodies: Fashion and the Catholic Imagination will be on display at the Met on Fifth and the Cloisters until October 8th 2018. I hope you can check it out, and see how fashion is inspired by everything, even religion. Have you been able to visit the exhibit? What were your favorite parts? -T.S.

fashion History shoes The Metropolitan Museum of Art

The Met’s Masterworks: Unpacking Fashion

Currently at the Met’s Costume Institute is Masterworks: Unpacking Fashion. Visitors are given a peek into the Costume Institutes archives from the eighteenth century to twenty first. Not only has the museum acquired one of the largest collections in the world but one that includes Masterworks. Masterworks are labeled as such due to the garment ‘s technical qualities that have pushed the process of garment making forward. The qualities that deemed each piece a masterwork changed as eras progressed. Curators chose pieces that complemented each other no matter the time period. Essentially showing how fashion reacts to the past, present and future.

18th Century Masterworks: Quality of Materials

During the 1800’s the craftsmanships of embroidery, textiles, weaves and tailoring are what constitute masterwork. As the silhouettes of garments did not change much during this period it was the use of intricate techniques that made them masterworks. The Robe Volant, or one piece gown with a tight bodice, flowing front and back pleats was the typical style worn by women and girls. During this time the reference to lingerie  through  fuller proportions was seen as indecent and as a result so was the wearer. The shape was also frowned upon as people believed pregnancies due to affairs could be hidden. The simple silhouettes allowed the detailed damask or brocade prints to be the showcase of the garment. The making of a garment was through the process of draping fabric on a bodice and folding pleats rather than cutting and sewing.

Fashion

Robe Volant 1730 French and Robe A La Francaise 1760

 

Men’s attire for this period was inspired by new trade relations between Britain and Asia. An influx of new materials and styles such as silk and kimonos originated from China, India, Persia and Turkey changed the fashion of Europe. All of these cultures inspired the Banyan a casual house gown worn by British men. Depending on details like fit, cut or quilting they would be adorned at home or out at casual events. This coat’s European silhouette combined with Asian materials and styles was seen as elegant and fashionable. Men who wore a Banyan were considered well traveled with great fashion sense. Again simple lines and tailoring were used allowing detailed embroidery, bold patterns and bright colors to be the focus point of the garment.

fashion

British Blue Banyan 1760-70 and Red Suit 1770-80

During this same time period French fashion was pushing the boundaries and blurring the lines on what was acceptable for women to wear. Striped prints took the place of embroidery, a trend influenced by Asian relations. The print now being used for both female and male attire was previously associated with socially excluded populations. Men’s riding coats, cape collar and lapels were some of the masculine trends implemented into the Redingote or women’s dresses. To the dismay of  French magazines and their progressive efforts the public viewed the this trend as a perverse mixing of gender roles.

historical fashion

1790s Men tailcoat and 1787 Women’s Redingote

19th Century Masterworks: Technical developments in tools and speed and changes in  silhouettes

This century saw quick changes in a garment’s silhouette as opposed to the 18th century, which relied on materials to progress fashion. The use of bustles, crinolines and corsets was introduced drastically changing the form of a woman’s body. Technical abilities in cutting and sewing progressed with the introduction of the Jacard loom and the sewing machine. These tools allowed for garments to be made faster, cheaper and created ready-made or ready to wear accessibility. During this period the introduction of  Haute Couture by designer Charles Fredrick Worth was also pushing fashion forward. His tradition of labeling his pieces introduced the notion that a designer was a creator and artist.

fashion

Paul Poiret Opera Coat 1911

Fashion History

House of Worth 1898

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Early Twentieth Century Masterworks: Innovation and Reinvention

War World One like many other aspects of society affected fashion. Simple garments with less body restrictions was the norm. Haute Couture masters such as Paul Poiret and  Madeleine Vionnet embraced the uncorseted frame by using the draping method. As usual fashion and art intertwined with the surrealist movement inspiring collections by Elsa Schiaparelli and Charles James. As some designers looked to the future others looked to the past. Jeanne Lanvin’s mid-eighteenth  century inspired pieces included techniques used in the 1800’s. Techniques such as simpler silhouettes with bold embroidery and prints were used again .

Left:Madeleine Vionnet 1929 Haute Couture, inspired by the past and future fashion.
Right: John Galliano Spring/Summer 1999. Inspired by Madeline Vionnet gowns.

Fashion

Both House of Lanvin Haute Couture
Left: Traviata Robe De Style Winter 1928. Right Robe De Style 1926-27

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Late Twentieth Century Masterworks: Cultural Combinations, Youth Dominance and Couture’s Survival

At this point in fashion the popularity of Haute Couture was waning as the boom of ready to wear excelled. Designers like Yves Saint Laurent guided couture into relevancy by combining traditional couture elegance and modern street style. Cristobal Balenciaga  looked to the past and continued implementing 17th century structures with modern details. While punk visionary Vivienne Westwood lead the uprise of deconstructive fashion. Influences for her 1970’s,80’s and continuous collections included the fashion of the 17th-19th centuries.

Historical fashion

Left : Yves Saint Laurent Rive Gauche Spring Summer 2014. Right Yves Saint Laurent 1971. The Rive Gauche line by YSL used inspiration from the 40s.

Fashion History

Chicago Jacket by House of Dior by Yves Saint Laurent Autumn/Winter 1960-61. Referenced a moto jacket but couture made.

 

 

Contemporary Masterworks: Rebellion, Expression of the times, Garments with multiple meanings

Masters of the moment included Hussein Charlatan, Martin Margiela, Yohji Yamamoto, Issey Miyake and Alexander McQueen. The advancement of the deconstructive technique by Margiela unveiled the intricate details of the construction of a garment. A process normally only seen by the designer. The use of unconventional materials was introduced and paired with traditional couture techniques. Materials like porcelain and wood were transformed and conformed to a women’s shape. By doing this designers expanded the relationship between a women’s body and clothing as well as peoples traditional ideas of fashion. Pop culture, politics and perceptions were also questioned and applied to the creation of a garment. From my recollection of my college days even the  history of a country and its fashion inspired collections. Alexander McQueen and John Galliano both designed the traditional corset with  progressive materials like coiled wire.

Fashion

Yarmoto 2006-2007 Black silk, plastic and cashmere wool bustier. Issey Miake 1880-81 red molded polyester resin and cellulose nitrate bustier

history fashion

Pannier hooped petticoat 1760-70.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Harold Koda Gift

Curators are preservers of art who expand the lifespan of each piece. By doing so they allow art to live beyond its prime and introduce generations of observers to a historical world. This is what Harold Koda did as Curator in Charge at the Costume Institute for fifteen years before retiring in January of 2016. In tribute to him current Curator in Charge Andrew Bolton and Met Trustee Anna Wintour commissioned thirty designers to donate selections of their archives to the Met. Each  piece chosen held significance for Honda and found a purposeful position in the existing collection. Designers recalled their admiration and relationship with Koda that was cultivated through collaborations for the Costume Institute.

Fashion History

Philip Treacy “Paphiopedilum Philippines Hat. Spring/Summer 2000

Historical Fashion

Maison Margiela by John Galliano Coat Dress 2015-16

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The exhibit gives an inside look at how fashion continues to be influenced by history. It showcases how innovative designers find a way to move fashion forward with techniques of the past and future.  Masterworks:Unpacking Fashion will be on through February 4th 2017. Metropolitan Museum of Art 1000th 5th Ave, NY,NY,

T.S.